Pigment dispersion is a rare syndrome that affects the pigment of the eye and often leads to pigmentary glaucoma. It’s caused by the pigment cells detaching from the iris, causing them to float around the area. These floating pigment cells can occasionally clump together, creating temporary pressure behind the eye. When the pressure becomes too much, it will not only cause pain, but can also damage the optic nerve. At that point, pigmentary glaucoma occurs, which leads to permanent blindness.
Typically a condition most common in white males between their 20s and 40s, pigmentary glaucoma currently has no cure. There are, however, several ways to keep it under control to prevent permanent damage. One of these ways is with eye drops, while another is eye surgery.
One of the surgeries in development is YAG laser surgery, in which a laser is used to break up the clumps of cells. If the procedure is done in the early stages of the condition, the laser can successfully reduce the pressure behind the eye, preventing damage to the optic nerve. Ultimately, it is thought that this kind of surgery could prevent pigmentary glaucoma; however, scientists are still researching its effectiveness.